Cloud Pub/Sub

Cloud Pub/Sub

Cloud Pub/Sub is a managed publish/subscribe service, where you can send messages to a topic, and subscribe via push, pull, or streaming pull. A single Cloud Pub/Sub Topic can be associated with one or more Subscriptions. Each Subscription can have one or more subscribers. Cloud Pub/Sub delivers messages with guaranteed at-least-once delivery, and there is no ordering guarantee.

Enable API

gcloud services enable pubsub.googleapis.com

Create a Topic

gcloud pubsub topics create orders

Create a Pull Subscription

gcloud pubsub subscriptions create orders-subscription --topic=orders

Publish a Message

gcloud pubsub topics publish orders \
--message='{"id":"1", "description": "My Order"}'

Pull a Message

gcloud pubsub subscriptions pull orders-subscription --auto-ack

Dead Letter Topic

Normally if you failed to process a message, then you will need to un-acknowledge, and the message will be re-delivered again. However, you may not want to continuously re-deliver the same message indefinitely because your application simply cannot process it. In this case, you'd want to create a subscription with a Dead Letter Topic. You can then configure the max re-delivery attempts - and when all the attempts are exhausted, Pub/Sub will then re-deliver the message to a different topic. In order for the Dead Letter Topic to persist the message, you must also create a subscription for it - otherwise, no message will be persisted for the Dead Letter Topic.

Create a Dead Letter Topic

gcloud pubsub topics create order-dlt
gcloud pubsub subscriptions create order-dlt-subscription \
--topic=order-dlt \
--ack-deadline=300 \
--expiration-period=never

Create a Subscription with Dead Letter Topic

gcloud pubsub subscriptions create orders-subscription \
--topic=orders \
--dead-letter-topic=order-dlt \
--max-delivery-attempts=5

Grant Cloud Pub/Sub Permissions

You need to grant Cloud Pub/Sub additional permissions in order for Cloud Pub/Sub to be able to remove message from the original subscription and then publishing it to the DLT.

PROJECT_NUMBER=$(gcloud projects describe $PROJECT_ID --format='value(projectNumber)')
PUBSUB_SERVICE_ACCOUNT="service-${PROJECT_NUMBER}@gcp-sa-pubsub.iam.gserviceaccount.com"
# Permission to subscribe to the original subscription
gcloud pubsub subscriptions add-iam-policy-binding orders-subscription \
--member="serviceAccount:$PUBSUB_SERVICE_ACCOUNT"\
--role="roles/pubsub.subscriber"
# Permission to re-publish the message to the Dead Letter Topic
gcloud pubsub topics add-iam-policy-binding orders-dlt \
--member="serviceAccount:${PUBSUB_SERVICE_ACCOUNT}"\
--role="roles/pubsub.publisher"

See Cloud Pub/Sub Dead Letter Topic for more information.

Ordering

You can enable Message Ordering to a Pub/Sub topic, so that messages with the same key value (e.g., the same Order ID) can be delivered in order. Ordering can be important for a CQRS system that cannot process events out of order.

See Cloud Pub/Sub Ordering documentation for more information.

Filtering

Some architectures may be delivering many different types of messages to a single topic. For example, there may be different event types for an Order event (e.g., Created, Fulfilled, Returned ...). If you need to create different workers to process different type of events, then you can create a Subscription for each event type, and select the type of message you want to process with a Filter.

See Cloud Pub/Sub Filtering documentation for more information.

Spring Cloud Pub/Sub

The easiest way to use Cloud Pub/Sub is using Spring Cloud GCP's Spring Pub/Sub starter. This starter provides easy to use PubSubTemplate bean to send and receive messages.

Dependency

Add the Spring Cloud GCP Pub/Sub starter:

Maven
Gradle
Maven
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-gcp-starter-pubsub</artifactId>
</dependency>
Gradle
compile group: 'org.springframework.cloud', name: 'spring-cloud-gcp-starter-pubsub'

Configuration

There is no explicit configuration required if you use the automatic authentication and project ID detection. I.e., if you already logged in locally with gcloud command line, then it'll automatically use Pub/Sub topics/subscriptions from the project you configured in gcloud.

Notice that there is no explicit configuration for username/password. Cloud Pub/Sub authentication uses the GCP credential (either your user credential, or Service Account credential), and authorization is configured via Identity Access Management (IAM).

Pub/Sub Template

JSON Serialization

You need to produce a PubSubMessageConverter bean in order for Spring Cloud GCP Pub/Sub to automatically serialize a POJO into JSON payload,

@Bean
public PubSubMessageConverter pubSubMessageConverter() {
return new JacksonPubSubMessageConverter(new ObjectMapper());
}

Non-Web Applications

In a web application, the Java process will stay alive until it's explicitly killed. If your Pub/Sub message subscriber does not use a Web starter (Web or Webflux), then the application may exit as soon as it initializes. When you need the Pub/Sub subscribers to stay alive without exiting immediately, you must create a bean ThreadPoolTaskScheduler named pubsubSubscriberThreadPool.

@Bean
ThreadPoolTaskScheduler pubsubSubscriberThreadPool() {
return new ThreadPoolTaskScheduler();
}

Publish a Message

You can use PubSubPublisherTemplate to easily publish a message.

@RestController
class OrderController {
private final PubSubPublisherTemplate publisherTemplate;
OrderController(
PubSubPublisherTemplate publisherTemplate) {
this.publisherTemplate = publisherTemplate;
}
@PostMapping("/order/submit")
void submitOrder(@RequestBody Order order) {
publisherTemplate.publish("orders", order);
}
}

Pull a Message

You can pull N number of messages by using PubSubSubscriberTemplate.

@Bean
ApplicationRunner runner(PubSubSubscriberTemplate subscriberTemplate) {
return (args) -> {
var msgs = subscriberTemplate
.pullAndConvert("orders-subscription", 1, true, Order.class);
msgs.forEach(msg -> {
logger.info(msg.getPayload().getId());
msg.ack();
});
};
}

Subscribe to a Subscription

You can also just subscribe to a subscription using Streaming Pull, so that it maintains a persistent connection, and can process messages whenever they arrive:

@Bean
ApplicationRunner subscribeRunner(PubSubSubscriberTemplate subscriberTemplate) {
return (args) -> {
subscriberTemplate.subscribeAndConvert("orders-subscription", msg -> {
System.out.println(msg.getPayload().getId());
msg.ack();
}, Order.class);
};
}

Streaming pull currently does not support back-pressure well. If you have many small messages, but each message takes a long time to process, then you may not want to use Streaming Pull.

Reactive Stream

If you are using Project Reactor (or Webflux that uses Project Reactor), you can also subscribe to a Pub/Sub Subscription using PubSubReactiveFactory.

@Bean
ApplicationRunner reactiveSubscriber(PubSubReactiveFactory reactiveFactory, PubSubMessageConverter converter) {
return (args) -> {
reactiveFactory.poll("orders-subscription", 250L)
// Convert a JSON payload into an object
.map(msg -> converter.fromPubSubMessage(msg.getPubsubMessage(), Order.class))
.doOnNext(order -> System.out.println(order.getId()))
// Mannually acknowledge the message
.doOnNext(AcknowledgeablePubsubMessage::ack);
.subscribe();
};
}

Samples

Spring Integration

Spring Integration is allows you to easily create Enterprise Integration pipelines by supporting well known Enterprise Integration Patterns. If you use Spring Integration, you can easily use Pub/Sub to send and consume messages, using an InboundChannelAdapter and MessageHandler.

Inbound Channel

In Spring Integration, you can configure bind an input channel to a Pub/Sub Subscription using the PubSubInboundChannelAdapter.

@Bean
public MessageChannel orderRequestInputChannel() {
return MessageChannels.direct().get();
}
@Bean
public PubSubInboundChannelAdapter orderRequestChannelAdapter(
@Qualifier("orderRequestInputChannel") MessageChannel inputChannel,
PubSubTemplate pubSubTemplate) {
PubSubInboundChannelAdapter adapter =
new PubSubInboundChannelAdapter(
pubSubTemplate, "orders-subscription");
adapter.setOutputChannel(inputChannel);
adapter.setPayloadType(Order.class);
adapter.setAckMode(AckMode.AUTO);
return adapter;
}

You can then create a new message processor and binding a method to the input channel, by using the ServiceActivator annotation.

public class OrderProcessor {
private static final Logger logger = LoggerFactory.getLogger(OrderProcessor.class);
@ServiceActivator(inputChannel = "orderRequestInputChannel")
void process(@Payload Order order) {
logger.info(order.getId());
}
}

Message Handler and Message Gateway

To send the message to a topic, you can use PubSubMessageHandler to bind it to a channel by using the ServiceActivator annotation.

@Bean
@ServiceActivator(inputChannel = "ordersRequestOutputChannel")
public MessageHandler ordersOutputMessageHandler() {
return new PubSubMessageHandler(pubSubTemplate, "orders");
}

With Spring Integration Message Gateway, you can also bind a gateway method to a channel that's handled by the PubSubMessageHandler.

@MessagingGateway
public interface OrdersGateway {
@Gateway(requestChannel = "ordersRequestOutputChannel")
void sendOrder(Order order);
}

Now you can send a message to the Pub/Sub Topic by using an instance of the Gateway.

@Bean
ApplicationRunner sendOrder(OrderGateway gateway) {
return (args) -> {
Order order = new Order();
order.setId(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
gateway.sendOrder(order);
};
}

Integration Flow

Last but not least, you can create an entire message flow, with patterns such as Retry and Rate Limiting, and processing the message by creating a new Integration Flow.

Samples

Spring Cloud Stream

Spring Cloud Stream allows you to write event-driven microservices by simply implementing well known Java functional interfaces such as Function, Consumer, and Supplier. Messaging infrastructure (such as a Pub/Sub Topic or Subscription) can be bound to these functions at the runtime.

Dependency

Spring Cloud Stream depends on Spring Integration. In addition, add the Pub/Sub Stream Binder.

Maven
Gradle
Maven
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-stream</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.cloud</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-cloud-gcp-pubsub-stream-binder</artifactId>
</dependency>
Gradle
compile group: 'org.springframework.cloud', name: 'spring-cloud-stream'
compile group: 'org.springframework.cloud', name: 'spring-cloud-gcp-pubsub-stream-binder'

Consume Messages

Consumer

A Spring Cloud Stream consumer to consume messages is simply a Java Consumer.

@Bean
public Consumer<Order> processOrder() {
return order -> {
logger.info(order.getId());
};
};

Binding

You can bind the processOrder consumer with applications.properties configuration. See Spring Cloud Streams documentation on the binding naming convention, where processOrder becomes processorOrder-in-0.

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.processOrder-in-0.destination=orders
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.processOrder-in-0.group=orders-processor-group
# For development use, but not recommended for production.
spring.cloud.stream.gcp.pubsub.default.consumer.auto-create-resources=true

A Spring Cloud Streams Consumer Group is mapped to a subscription, with the naming convention of [destination-name].[consumer-group-name]. So in this example, a subscription named orders.orders-processor-group will be automatically created.

Consume and Produce Message

If your consumer need to also produce a message to another topic, you can implement a Function.

Function

@Bean
public Function<Order, String> processOrder() {
return order -> {
logger.info(order.getId());
return order.getId();
};
};

Binding

The output of the function can be forwarded to the next destination/topic.

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.processOrder-in-0.destination=orders
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.processOrder-in-0.group=orders-processor-group
spring.cloud.stream.bindings.processOrder-out-0.destination=order-processed
# For development use, but not recommended for production.
spring.cloud.stream.gcp.pubsub.default.consumer.auto-create-resources=true

Produce Messages

If you need to continuously produce messages, then you can implement Supplier. Supplier can be used in two ways, either supply the object itself, or supply a Flux that can then continuously emit new messages. Read Spring Cloud Streams documentation for more information.

Supplier

@Bean
Supplier<Flux<Order>> ordersToProcess() {
return () -> Flux.from(e -> {
while (true) {
try {
Order order = new Order();
order.setId(UUID.randomUUID().toString());
e.onNext(order);
Thread.sleep(1000L);
} catch (InterruptedException interruptedException) {
}
}
});
}

Binding

The output of the supplier can be sent to the destination/topic.

spring.cloud.stream.bindings.ordersToProcess-out-0.destination=order-processed
# For development use, but not recommended for production.
spring.cloud.stream.gcp.pubsub.default.consumer.auto-create-resources=true

This will send the output of the supplier to the order-processed topic.

Samples